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Even as peace was being achieved between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A, conflict in the western region of Darfur escalated, attracting international attention.
The war in Darfur continues and, in 2011, a new war broke out in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, two states in the southern part of the new Sudan.
The reasons for conflict in Sudan have been highly complicated, including ethnic and regional power struggles, religious differences, disputes over oil production and revenues, and issues of governance, which left many southerners feeling deeply marginalized and many in other regions feeling similarly unrepresented.
For years, the most visible conflict was between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), the major Southern rebel faction, and the National Islamic Front government of President Omar al-Bashir, later renamed the National Congress Party, or NCP.
The Carter Center helped find ways to end Sudan's civil war, as President Carter worked directly to negotiate between the parties and to help focus local, regional, and international opinion on peace, not war.
The Carter Center has worked since the late 1980s to address conflict in Sudan, first in the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) and more recently through efforts to encourage a constructive relationship between Sudan and the newly independent South Sudan.The war in the "Two Areas," as it is known, pits the government against the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army – North (SPLA-N), most of which is composed of former SPLA/M fighters in northern Sudan after the independence of South Sudan in July 2011.As of December 2014, an estimated 500,000 people had been displaced by the conflict in the "Two Areas," while an estimated 2.5 million remain displaced by the fighting in Darfur.The Carter Center's Conflict Resolution Program has been involved in attempting to resolve these disputes through support to the Sudan-South Sudan Dialogue Group, which is composed of prominent civil society figures and aims at creating a peaceful dialogue between the two countries in order to further normalize relations.The contested area of Abyei, to which both Sudan and South Sudan lay claim, lies at the heart of current frictions.